365bet体育娱乐场-影院放开外资控股,但现在中国市场还能吸引他们吗?
2019-07-12 14:26:38 来源:本站
作者/Patrick Brzeski
 
编译/张孟碟
 
中国庞大的电影产业从诞生日起,就受到政策的多方位保护,现在,中国打开了外资进入影院行业的大门。
 
6月30日,国家发展改革委、商务部发布《外商投资准入特别管理措施(负面清单)(2019年版)》,负面条目从2018年的48个减少至40个。其中,“电影院、经营需由中方控股”在新版中被删除。
▲ 《外商投资准入特别管理措施(负面清单)(2019年版)》
 
▲ 图片来源:中华人民共和国中央人民政府
 
外国企业的犹豫
 
然而,新规则允许的具体内容仍然有些不清楚。虽然现在似乎允许外国公司对电影院进行“操作和建设”,但文件中其他地方保留的含糊不清的措辞仍然没有解决中国的电影院是否可以由国际公司直接拥有,或者在什么所有制结构下的问题。(例如,与中国公司建立合资企业的要求是否仍然存在?外国公司在业务中的份额有多大?)
 
“解释和实施的灵活性是北京熟悉的策略,”北京哈里斯布里肯律师事务所的合伙人马修奥尔德森补充道。“在一些国际公司真正开始尝试并且应用之前,我们不会完全知道什么是可能的。”
 
另外一个问题是,外国公司在中国庞大的影院产业中有多大的增长机会。代表中国工作室参与国际交易的Manatt,Phelps&Phillips合伙人林赛·康纳指出:“你当然不能说现在进入中国影院市场的公司将取得优势地位。”
 
在过去二十年中,中国屏幕从仅有数百块爆炸发展到超过64,000块,中国也成为了世界上影院数量最大、最高水平国家。总部位于北京的大连万达集团,不仅是中国也是全球最大的参展商,拥有多元化的房地产,几乎占据了中国所有主要城市。
 
与此同时,大多数指标表明,中国的剧院建设热潮终于达到了饱和点,而且该行业甚至可能陷入困境。上海电影咨询公司Artisan Gateway的总裁兰斯·鲍尔斯说:“这是很重要的现状,因为我们看到的是中国工业正在转型。”
 
根据Artisan Gateway的数据,2019年上半年,中国的门票收入与去年同期相比下降了2.7%。大多数观察人士认为由于北京的税收打击、过去一年的严厉审查以及其他国内融资挑战导致了国内电影产量下滑。同时,平均票价从2018年的35.6元(5.17美元)到今年38.6元(5.61美元)的上涨还暗藏了一个更令人担忧的趋势:今年上半年入场总人数下降10.3%,而且每块电影屏幕平均票房收入下滑16.7个百分比。
 
那么,北京突然更容易接受一些国际资源和运营最佳实践,这可能很自然,毕竟国内冠军已经如此根深蒂固。
 
中国市场仍不可忽视
 
尽管对那些常年或周期性在中国开展业务的人都存在困难,政策也似乎仍然模棱两可,但主要的国际影院连锁店不太可能完全避开北京的邀请。毕竟中国可能已经拥有比北美多50%的电影屏幕(约64,900,而不是40,300),但其人口是美国的四倍多(13.9亿与3.27亿相比)。
 
康纳补充说:“中国市场已经为当地影院公司的迅速崛起提供了大量服务,但它仍然是一个无法忽视的大市场。我认为每家大型影院公司都会给予认真对待。”
 
政策放宽是20国集团峰会的后续
 
这一变化的时机在20国集团峰会上,习近平和特朗普举行会谈,在承诺取消威胁性关税增加的几天后,相关政策发布了。业内多人对此称好,因为这表明贸易战不会影响好莱坞在中国的发展。(HBO和台湾公视联合出品的原创剧集《我们与恶的距离》获得了中国监管机构的批准,同一周内在腾讯视频上线,这表明北京可能最近放宽了美国视频内容的审批。)
 
“在贸易战的背景下,有一种趋势是在这里和那里做出小小的让步,这可能就是其中之一,”奥尔德森说。“如果会议导致紧张局势升级,很难想象他们会采取这一步骤。”
 
(译文有删节)
 
以下为英文原文
 
ChinaOpens Door for Foreign Movie Theater Chains, But Will They Enter?
 
2:58PM PDT 7/9/2019 by Patrick Brzeski
 
Summary:The country with the world's largestpotential moviegoing audience appears to be inviting foreign investment rightas growth in the sector finally begins to slow.
 
Body:After years of restrictions on virtuallyevery front of its massive film sector, China has cracked the door open to foreignmovie theater chains.
 
On June 30, China’s National Developmentand Reform Commission (NDRC) issued an update to its so-called "NegativeList," the official government document that outlines which industries areout of bounds for foreign investment. The number of sectors and sub-sectors onthe list was cut from 2018's total of 48 to 40 this year. The new 2019 listremoved investment restrictions on industries ranging from oil exploration tofarming, as well as one significant change for the entertainment business: Arestriction stipulating that "the construction and operation of cinemasmust be controlled by a Chinese party" was dropped.
 
The timing of the changes — just days afterPresident Donald Trump met with Chinese leader Xi Jinping at the G20 summit andpledged to back down from threatened tariff increases — struck many in theindustry as an encouraging sign that Beijing's trade war retaliations wouldn'tbe engulfing Hollywood's vital China business anytime soon. (HBO Asia'sTaiwanese original series The World Between Us received permission from Chineseregulators to stream on Tencent Video the same week, offering encouragementthat Beijing may have lifted a recent freeze on U.S. video content approvals.)
 
"In the context of the trade war,there is a tendency for small concessions to be made here and there, and thisis probably one of them," says Mathew Alderson, a partner at HarrisBricken Attorneys & Consultants in Beijing. "It's hard to imagine thatthey would have taken this step had that meeting resulted in an escalation oftensions."
 
Exactly what the new rules allow remainssomewhat unclear, however. Although the "operation and construction"of cinemas by foreign firms appears to be permitted now, ambiguous wordingretained elsewhere in the document leaves unresolved the question of whethermovie theaters in China can be directly owned by international parties, orunder what ownership structures. (Does the usual requirement of entering into ajoint venture with a Chinese firm still hold, for example? And just how largecan the foreign party's share of the business be in practice?)
 
"Flexibility in interpretation andimplementation is a familiar strategy from Beijing," adds Alderson."We won't fully know what's possible until some international companiesactually try to work through this system and we see how it is applied."
 
How much opportunity for growth is left forforeign firms to capitalize on in China's massive exhibition sector is anotherquestion. "You certainly can't say that companies going into theaterconstruction in China now will be getting in on the ground floor," pointsout Lindsay Connor, a partner at Manatt, Phelps & Phillips, who regularlyrepresents Chinese studios in international deals.
 
Over the past two decades, China's theatricalexhibition footprint has exploded from hundreds of screens to a networktotaling more than 64,000 — the largest and most state-of-the-art exhibitionoutlay of any country on the planet. Beijing-based Dalian Wanda Group, bothChina's and the world's largest exhibitor, already has a multiplex occupyingprime real estate in virtually every major Chinese city.
 
Meanwhile, most indicators suggest China'sgreat theater-building boom is finally reaching a leveling-off point — and thatthe sector could even be ailing. "It's significant that this announcementhas come now, because what we see is that the Chinese industry is intransition," says Rance Pow, president of Shanghai-based cinema consultingfirm Artisan Gateway.
 
In the first half of 2019, ticket salesrevenue in China fell 2.7 percent compared to the same period last year,according to Artisan Gateway's data. Most observers have blamed the drop on adownturn in domestic film production caused by Beijing's tax crackdown andcensorship uptick over the past year, along with other domestic financingchallenges. But an increase in average ticket prices — from RMB 35.6 ($5.17) in2018 to RMB 38.6 ($5.61) this year — has masked a more worrying trend: a 10.3percent decline in total admissions in the first half of the year, and a 16.7percent slip in the average box office revenue generated per movie screen.
 
"We're starting to see what looks likethe beginnings of a consolidation stage in the Chinese exhibition industry,which would be led by the failure of some smaller companies, and at some pointbigger failures of business," Pow says.
 
It's perhaps natural, then, that Beijing issuddenly more receptive to bringing in some international resources andoperational best practices — especially since the domestic champions arealready so well-entrenched.
 
Despite the difficulties — both thoseperennial to doing business in China, and the cyclical downturn — it's unlikelythat the major international theater chains will eschew Beijing's invitationaltogether, as ambiguous as it may still be. China may already have 50 percentmore movie screens than North America (approximately 64,900, compared with40,300), but its population is more than four times that of the U.S. (1.39billion compared to 327 million).
 
Adds Connor: "The Chinese market hasbeen substantially serviced by the rapid rise of local theater companies, butit's still far too big a market to ignore. I suspect every major theatercompany will be giving this a very hard look."
 
 
 
关键词 >> 外资控股,影院,电影院